FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING B.Com/BBA II Semester CORE COURSE (2011 ADMISSION ONWARDS) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Calicut University, P.O. Malappuram, Kerala, India-673 635 307 School of Distance Education Financial Accounting 2 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE B.Com/BBA II SEMETER FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING Prepared by: Udaya Kumar.O.K. Associate Professor, Dept. of Commerce, Govt. College Madappally. Scrutinised by: Dr. K. Venugopalan Associate Professor, Dept. of Commerce, Govt. College Madappally. Layout & Settings: Computer Section, SDE © Reserved School of Distance Education Financial Accounting 3 CONTENTS PAGES Module ‐ I 05 ‐ 13 Module ‐ 2 14 ‐ 71 Module ‐ 3 72 ‐ 86 Module – 4 87 ‐ 115 Module ‐ 5 116 ‐ 133 School of
Distance Education Financial Accounting 4 School of Distance Education Financial Accounting 5 Module 1 INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING Meaning and Definition of Accounting Accounting has rightly been termed as the language of the business. It records, classifies, analyses and communicates all the business transactions that have taken place during a particular period. It is a system of recording and reporting business transactions in financial terms, to interested parties. According to American Institute of Certified Public Accounts “Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner in terms of money, transactions and events which are , in part at least, of a financial character and interpreting the results there of”. Thus accounting is the art of recording, classifying, summarizing, analyzing and interpreting the financial transactions and communicating the results thereof to the interested person. Features or characteristics or nature of Accounting Following are the features of accounting:- (1) Accounting is an art. (2) Accounting is a science. (3) Recording of business transactions. (4) Classifying business transactions. (5) Summarizing the classified data (6) Analysis and interpret the summarized data (7) Communicating information to the interested parties. (8) Records transaction and events which are financial character. Objectives of Accounting or functions of accounting The following are the main objectives: 1. To keep systematic records. 2. To ascertain the operational profit or loss. 3. To ascertain the financial position of the business. 4. To make information available to various users. 5. To protect business properties. 6. To facilitate rational decision making. 7. To ascertain the cost of production and selling price. 8. To control expenditure of business. 9. To satisfy the requirements of law. 10.To calculate the amount due to and due from others. Importance of accounting (Uses or advantages) Accounting brings the following advantages: School of Distance Education Financial Accounting 6 1. It serves as a historical record. 2. It facilitates the preparation of financial statements. 3. It supplies information to interested persons 4. It helps the management in taking important business decisions. 5. It facilitates comparative study of the performance of business over different periods. 6. It provides evidence in case of disputes. 7. It helps to forecast the future. 8. It provides information for judging the efficiency of business 9. It is useful in getting loans. 10. It helps in valuation of good will. 11. It helps in controlling expenses. 12. It helps in controlling employees. 13. It...
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